The development of new tools to interface with the nervous system, empowered by advances in electronics and materials science, has transformed neuroscience and is informing therapies for neurological and mental conditions. Although the vast majority of neural engineering research has focused on advancing tools to study the brain, understanding the peripheral nervous system and other organs can similarly benefit from these technologies. To realize this vision, the neural interface technologies need to address the biophysical, mechanical, and chemical challenges posed by the peripheral nerves and organs. In this Perspective, we discuss design considerations and recent technological advances to modulate electrical signaling outside the central nervous system. The innovations in bioelectronics borne out of interdisciplinary collaborations between biologists and physical scientists may not only advance fundamental study of peripheral (neuro)physiology but also empower clinical interventions for conditions including neurological, gastrointestinal, and immune dysfunction.