Despite the critical role played by carbon monoxide (CO) in physiological and pathological signaling events, current approaches to deliver this messenger molecule are often accompanied by off-target effects and offer limited control over release kinetics. To address these challenges, we develop an electrochemical approach that affords on-demand release of CO through reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolved in the extracellular space. Electrocatalytic generation of CO by cobalt phthalocyanine molecular catalysts modulates signaling pathways mediated by a CO receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase. Furthermore, by tuning the applied voltage during electrocatalysis, we explore the effect of the CO release kinetics on CO-dependent neuronal signaling. Finally, we integrate components of our electrochemical platform into microscale fibers to produce CO in a spatially-restricted manner and to activate signaling cascades in the targeted cells. By offering on-demand local synthesis of CO, our approach may facilitate the studies of physiological processes affected by this gaseous molecular messenger.